February 26, 2016
During the FeHoVa 2016 international Dog Show in Budapest, Hungary, I’ve noticed that one dog owner specifically kept pulling away her dog from me when my amorous Kaffogo Agyag has kept pulling after her male Pumi. First I thought she was simply unfriendly, however, once her dog was in a “safe distance” under control, she was open to engage in conversation with me. When I asked her why she did not let her dog to play with Agyag and Fruska, her answer was, that she was worrying about canine herpes virus… We’ve all heard of the disease, however, for many breeders and dog owners CHV remains in the realm of the abstract.
So we started talking….
As a farmer who have bred horses, sheep and goats I’ve known about rhino, or “Rhino pneumonitis”, the equine herpes virus. Due to the size of horses, rhino caused abortion is a truly dramatic experience. Ovines (sheep) can also host the Ovine Herpes Virus 2 that causes an inapparent infection, a condition that we closely monitor here on the farm so we can prevent it.
Canine herpes virus is also an ugly disease. Those who are not so familiar with the details of CHV, might be able learn something from this article. I know, that I certainly would have been able to use a collection of more readily available readings on a website or the advice of seasoned breeders on breeding and health related issues in the past and even today. Hope this article can help to point to the right direction for further readings and to change behaviors when dealing with communicable diseases.
New born puppies are exciting news. Dog pregnancy is a relatively short event and through social media we can closely follow our “friends'” pregnant dogs and new born litters. With the help of the internet, we are right there in the breeder’s living room or barn… witnessing the pregnancy and new lives.
Unfortunately, sometime, we also witness abortions, stillbirth, pups born weak and die unexpectedly with no previous signs within one- to-four weeks. We express our condolence and mourn along based on the pattern of the 24-hour news cycle and then move on. We do not follow up, and do not go back to ask the question, “what happened…?” It is considered inappropriate in the eye of public opinion, as opposed to considering it as a learning opportunity and possibly helping others.
In the age of our sanitized virtual relationships across continents, objective discussions have been considered as impolite. A friend of mine who is older than Marshall McLuhan’s phrase, “the medium is the message” and who ironically also happens to be a Canadian (like McLuhan), after she got acquainted with Facebook not long ago, asked her newly acquired Facebook friends for their phone numbers so she could call them instead of communicating over FB – it seemed less complicated, more effective and goal oriented to her…I guess, she just did not get it… “I thought we were friends after all…” she often told me when talking about her FaceBook friends…
So some fetuses get aborted, or just never fully develop and born or the newborn puppies simply die after birth in a short period of time. Among those who survive, some remains weak and lethargic and perhaps appears to have respiratory or organ problems, nerve damages, mental and behavioral issues. The cause of the incident does not get tracked down by the breeder, the question remains open, and most likely subjective logic gets applied to explain the misfortune. This is one way how taboos and myths born in dog breeding circles.
Canine herpes virus is a frustrating highly contagious diseases that is more frequent than one would think of. 80% of kenneled dogs can come into contact with the virus while among “in home” kept dogs, the infection rate is much lower, 20-25%. Ironically, pet dogs that have been kept in homes as opposed to kennels, when contracted the virus, have shown more severe symptoms than dogs that are frequently kenneled. In contrast, show dogs who are exposed to low levels of the virus on a regular basis, can develop certain resistance to suppress flare ups.
When talking about Canine herpes virus, a certain cultural bias is unavoidable. I’ve read some studies about canine herpes virus infection rates in England, Belgium and Turkey. (“A serological study of canine herpes virus-1 infection in the English dog population” Reading MJ et al. Arch Virol 1998, – there was a similar study published in Belgium by Ronnse V, et. al. Reprod Domest Anim. 2002 – and in Turkey by Yesilbag K et al. Res Vet Sci. 2012) Before reading these articles, my prediction, based on my short experience in these countries, listed Turkey as probably the most affected one by the CHV among the three countries listed. I imagine, many of you would assume the same outcome. Objective reality however, turned out to be different. The studies have basically shown a very similar CHV infection rate in all three countries.
Dogs can get infected with the virus anywhere anytime through nasal, oral and vaginal secretion. Most frequent places can be dog shows, like the annual Westminster Kennel Club Show (to shock you!) or the annual AKC Eukanuba Agility trial (another place where the ELITE appears…) for the “menu chiens” simply dog runs, dog training places, even vet offices can be “ideal” locations of contracting the disease. In short, CHV do not discriminate…
What can tip the scale in favor of countries with a higher puppy survival rate is, the so called” higher dog culture” ( for lack of a better definition…) that is basically a higher quality post partum care. If the fetus did not die before birth, CHV can also be transmitted to the pups through the birth canal and oral or nasal infection. Because puppies cannot control their body temperature before three weeks of age, the virus that thrives in lower temperature (97-99F), infects the young pup’s body due to the body’s inability to produce fever.
Questions one might ask, can or should the dam be bred again after a breeder experiences a CHV infected litter from the dam? if yes, would the dam’s next litter show signs of CHV too? Can the stud dog get infected?
Unfortunately, most veterinary information focusing on herpes in puppies and it is hard to find articles about management of herpes in adult dogs. The percentage of CHV infected adult dog population is staggering. It is btw 30%-80% anywhere in the U.S (Wikipedia puts the number even higher, 40-93% in certain dog populations.) Adult dogs rarely show signs of herpes as it tend to go dormant in the body, however, stress can trigger a flare ups. Therefore, careful planning of a litter of a CHV infected bitch is very important.
Stress management is key. How can a breeder avoid putting stress on a dog that is going to be bred? What can be the stressors for a bitch? Mary C. Wakeman D.V.M., summarize it in the following list:
- hormonal events which temporarily impair the body’s ability to fight infection,
- shipping , boarding, breeding and shipping again should the bitch travel to the stud dog,
- possible concurrent bacterial vaginal or uterine disease,
- lyme disease in certain part of the country when traveling there,
- DOG SHOWS,
- decreased thyroid level that is especially common in bitches five years or older,
- certain vaccinations
- other issues such as temperature stress.
The presence of stress triggered herpes can explain failed pregnancies, and unusually small litter sizes. In one test, where strict pre-pregnancy work ups showed no infections around half way to whelping, the presence of live fetuses have been established. Later, serum samples were taken for herpes titer about two weeks apart. Those who have been exposed to shows, kenneling, groomers, flying and previously showed no signs of infections, the CHV test results suddenly have shown positive herpes titers, in about 80% of the bitches tested. This outcome should be self explanatory why previously infected bitches especially should avoid stress before breeding and during pregnancy.
It is also important to know that CHV can appear in a form of a respiratory disease, that can easily be mistaken for kennel cough, can manifest as a conjunctivitis, cornea infection of the eye and sinusitis according to the Merck veterinary manual. Dogs can be exposed to repeat infections by going to kennels, dog runs, training places where they can be exposed to higher or lower level of infective particles from the environment that has a relatively high presence of dogs, They can also flare up as their own dormant infection might resurface.
Breeders who cannot avoid these contacts, because they train other dogs, run boarding kennels, go to shows and trials, still can reduce the probability of literary taking the disease back home through preventative measures such as regularly changing clothes before entering their own environment. One can also reduce visitor’s access to the breeding kennel and establish higher sanitation measures for visitors (usually a high percentage of visitors already have dogs who might carry CHV on themselves from home.)
Ironically, pet dogs who do not or rarely visit dog shows, trials, kennels groomers etc are more susceptible because they have no regular low level contact with the virus as show and performance dogs do.
What about male dogs? They may get infected or not. The Belgian pharma company Merial who produces herpes vaccine Euricas 205 suggests that vaccination temporarily stops the spread of the virus. Testing at the time of breeding is pointless according to Mary C. Wakeman, especially if the dog is from the same environment as the bitch. Dogs from the same kennels, will be in various phases of the infection. One thing to keep in mind, however, is that boarding kennels, groomers that primarily cater to pet dogs, contains a much higher level of infected aerosol particles than breeding kennels in case the bitch has visited one of these sites outside of her kennel. Consequently sanitation is extremely important. According to the Merck Veterinary manual, CHV is relatively unstable outside the host and sensitive to lipid solvents, ether and chloroform and in general to most disinfectants. With regular cleaning the transmission can be reduced.
Another useful advice is, not to leave the bitch in the dog’s environment at breeding, rather traveling back and forth by car that most dogs are used to and staying in a hotel with the owner/handler. To further reduce stress and travel related exposure, the use of artificial insemination is also viable alternative.
There is no treatment (curing the disease) available for HCV. There is no vaccination available in the United States. Euricas Herpes 205 vaccination is available in Europe to “manage” the infection. There is an interesting scientific discussion how the vaccine had been developed step by step, it is certainly not your ordinary non-fiction but I still found it fascinating what a serious work and details goes into developing medicine. “http://www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/EPAR_-_Scientific_Discussion/veterinary/000059/WC500066409.pdf
About puppies and CHV: the seriousness of the illness depend on the age of the dog that contracts it. In the prenatal stage of development the disease virtually starves the fetus from nutrients. This is the reason why reabsorption, abortion or stillbirth can occur. Pups born with infection contracted in the prenatal period are usually severely damaged.
Puppies that get infected in the utero from vaginal secretion or the saliva or the nasal secretion of the dam during or after birth, often remain under weight, weak with damaged organs. These puppies often suffer from “fading puppy syndrome due to the inability to nurse.” They are usually in discomfort with pain and diarrhea. They produce eye and nasal discharge. internal hemorrhage is also a frequent syndrome of CHV pups. Since a puppy under three weeks of age cannot control his body temperature, he cannot produce fever and the virus simply thrives below 98F. Once a CHV infected puppy reaches 3-4 weeks of age his chances of survival can increase dramatically.
Vaccinations, if it is available, with proper timing will help the bitch to develop antibodies and reduce or temporarily prevent flare ups during mating and whelping induced stress. When vaccination is not available like here in the US, strict preventative measures can improve the puppies surviving rate.
Heat lamp and heating pad can help to elevate the puppies’ body temperature to reduce and prevent CHV replication in the body before three weeks of age until the pups can control their own body temperatures. While antibiotics are ineffective for controlling the virus, it can prevent and eliminate secondary bacterial infections.
Proper sanitation using household disinfectants can eliminate CHV shed by the dam to prevent further infections in the pups. Limiting outside visitors and the use of increased protective measures to introduce outside pollutions are also essential.
According to secondary sources, the pharmaceutical company Merial stated that “the virus, (CHV) does not come from bad kennels – it is already everywhere.”
Can we do something about it together?